Time-dependent cosmic ray modulation

23 August 2012

Time-dependent cosmic ray modulation is calculated over multiple solar cycles using our well established two-dimensional time-dependent modulation model. Results are compared to Voyager 1, Ulysses and IMP cosmic ray observations to establish compatibility. A time-dependence in the diffusion and drift coefficients, implicitly contained in recent expressions derived by Teufel and Schlickeiser (2002), Shalchi et al. (2004), Minnie et al. (2007), Engelbrecht (2008), is incorporated into the cosmic ray modulation model. This results in calculations which are compatible with spacecraft observations on a global scale over consecutive solar cycles. This approach compares well to the successful compound approach of Ferreira and Potgieter (2004). For both these approaches the magnetic field magnitude, variance of the field and current sheet tilt angle values observed at Earth are transported time-dependently into the outer heliosphere. However, when results are compared to observations for extreme solar maximum, the computed step-like modulation is not as pronounced as observed. This indicates that some additional merging of these structures into more pronounced modulation barriers along the way is needed