21 November 2022

Environmental sustainability has become a priority agenda globally, with World bodies such as the UN, UNESCO and World Bank encouraging environmental restoration with various incentives for all nations (UNCTAD, 2019; Kiran, 2015). The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development refl ect the linkages between poverty reduction, natural resource management and development, as well as local and global environmental challenges to collectively manage shared global environmental risks and to build resilience across all types of countries to contribute to inclusive and sustainable development, taking into account complex issues such as the interactions between food, water and energy security (OECD, 2015).Environmental sustainability is not a new subject, but rather, as stated by Field Museum, (2019); communities and early civilisations’ understanding of sustainability traces to the distant past and links with the Zhou dynasty in China (1100-171), as well as the Egyptian, Mesopotamian Greeks and Romans (Du Pisani, 2006). It is notable that the most serious problems facing the world today, such as water and food supply crises, extreme volatility in energy and food prices, rising greenhouse gas emissions, severe income disparity, chronic fi scal imbalances and terrorism (World Economic Forum, 2012) either stem from environmental mismanagement or inequality, or both (OECD, 2012). This demands the need for the implementation of the Green Growth Development agenda (African Development Bank, 2012) in which sustainable development projects are supported on the African continent. According to the AfDB (2013: 60),“Africa should seize opportunities for greener, more sustainable growth to become more resilient in the face of climate change. By incorporating green principles in development plans, African countries will extend access to water, energy and transport, boost agricultural productivity and create new jobs and expertise; they will also build sustainable cities and develop their natural resources while reducing waste