Worshipping with the fourfold at the temple complex at Delphi, Greece, the Inner Shrine at Ise, Japan, and St. Peter's Basilica at Rome

20 May 2013

The aim of this article is to critique Martin Heidegger’s fourfold as a static concept and to reformulate it as a dynamic concept to be applied as a criterion to assess the architectural excellence of the temple complex of Apollo at Delphi, Greece, and the Inner Shinto Shrine at Ise, Japan, both exemplifying nature religions, as well as the Basilica of St. Peter’s in Rome, the most influential Christian church.