English: Wage and labour disputes between the Chamber of Mines and white unionised workers on the Rand led to an industrial strike in March 1922. Negotiations failed and militant strikers attacked several police stations on the Rand. The Government proclaimed martial law and mobilised the Union Defence Forces to restore law and order. The Union Defence Forces, assisted by the South African Police, launched a series of military operations against the strike commandos. Although these were mainly infantry operations, artillery and air power also played a vital role in suppressing the unrest quickly and with minimal losses on both sides.