English: In French literary studies the reign of “Theory” has come to an end and its demise has left a void. This article proposes that literary studies be founded on anthropological considerations. In order to justify this approach the insufficiencies of theory are first shown to be rooted in dualistic rationalism. Poetry concerns the whole experience of human beings, and three aspects of their irreplaceable individuality and unity are explored: verbal image, rhythm and voice. Since poetry is essentially human it needs to be studied in an interdisciplinary context.