Several root canal irrigants and medicaments are available to combat endodontic pathogens. However, evidence
of complete elimination of these pathogens by the use of
these solutions is not recorded in the literature. The possible development of resistant bacterial species is one of
the problems related to the efficacy of the currently available irrigants and medicaments. In addition, the complex
anatomy of the root canal system allows endodontic pathogens to be hidden in areas inaccessible to the action of
the irrigating preparations. This is further enhanced by the
protective layer that is formed by the remnants of pulp
tissue, dentin powder and dead cells which inhibit the antibacterial activity of the root canal irrigants and medicaments. Antimicrobial nanoparticles show promising effect
against resistant pathogens in pharmaceutical science as
a result of their unique physio-chemical properties. Unlike
traditionally used antimicrobial agents, these nanoparticles destroy bacterial cells through multiple mechanisms.
The concept of using nanoparticles in endodontics as a
new treatment modality was developed recently and their
antibacterial efficacy against endodontic pathogens was
evaluated by several researchers in many
in vitro studies.
This article reviews some of the currently available literature on laboratory studies that evaluated the efficacy of
nanoparticles against endodontic pathogens.