Summarising the position we have:
1. Both Zebu types originated in Asia.
(a) They have a coffin-shaped head with convex profile;
(b) the dewlap is prominent;
(c) the hump is well marked, but not characteristic, for it
occurs also in the Sanga type.
(a) The thoracic vertebrae from No. 6 backwards have bifid
4. Both have adapted themselves well to unfavourable environmental conditions, e.g. poor pasture, and parasites.
1. Origin: Lateral-horned Zebu originate from a pure parent stock while Shorthorned Zebu are a derived type arising through intermixture of Lateralhorned Zebu and Brachyceros.
2. Arrival in Africa: Lateral-horned Zebu arrived in pre-Christian times while Shorthorned Zebu arrived in Christian times.
3. Distribution in Africa: Lateral-horned Zebu are scattered and mainly south of the Zambesi River while Shorthorned Zebu form compact groups chiefly in East Africa, north of the
4. Horns: Lateral-horned Zebu have horns which are oval in cross-section, long and laterally placed while Shorthorned Zebu have horns which are circular at the base, short to medium length and upright.
5. Hump: Lateral-horned Zebu have cervico-thoracic humps which are muscular while Shorthorned Zebu have thoracic humps which are musculo-fatty.