BACKGROUND : Recreational noise exposure, including personal music device use (PMD), has
become a growing public health concern, as it may potentially result in the development of
OBJECTIVES : The aim of the study was to determine the differential impact and short-term
effects of simultaneous cardiovascular workout and PMD use on the outer hair cell
(OHC) function of young adults.
METHOD : A quantitative research approach was followed. In this study a pre-test post-test
approach was used and twelve subjects participated in three 1 h testing conditions with
altered variables including: (i) exposure to PMD use in isolation, (ii) exposure to cardiovascular
workout in isolation, and (iii) simultaneous exposure to the latter mentioned.
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were conducted pree and postexposure
for each testing condition as primary indicator of cochlear responses. The process
consisted of a cycling procedure through the preset stimulus frequency sequence,
measuring the 2f₁ef₂ (75e70 dBSPL) and constructing a plot of DPOAE levels as a function of
RESULTS : Individual testing conditions did not result in statistically significant changes of the
DPOAE response, however a significantly different profile in the DPOAE response level
increase/decrease for the higher frequencies (6e8 kHz) was obtained when comparing the
different sessions. Exposure to cardiovascular workout condition in isolation indicated a
clear trend of an increased DPOAE response level between the pre-exposure and postexposure
testing from 2 kHz to 8 kHz with a maximum increase at 6 kHz. Both the
music-only condition and the combined condition resulted in a clear trend of decreased
DPOAE response amplitudes between the pre-exposure and post-exposure testing for the
CONCLUSION : Findings support the notion of a clear effect of cardiovascular workout with and
without music exposure on the OHC function at higher test frequencies, as measured by DPOAEs. Decreased DPOAE amplitudes between 2 kHz and 8 kHz were observed with music
exposure and the opposite effect was observed for cardiovascular workout in isolation.