The realities of social injustice in the present South African context, with its great
and growing gap between rich and poor and unequal distribution of wealth and
resources, are also acutely visible in the health-care sector. Genetic engineering
would lead to some children having the cards stacked overwhelmingly in their
favour, raising the concern for the justice or fairness of this type of biotechnology.
In this contribution, I argue that the notion of justice as fairness, put forward by
Rawls, and the focus on human dignity in Moltmann’s theology can help address the
bioethical challenges of genetic engineering in the context of inequality, specifically
in South Africa.