Despite the numerous benefits of legume-based multiple cropping systems in soil fertility management, most smallholder sorghum farmers have not adopted them. The aim of this study was to examine socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems among smallholder sorghum farmers in Soroti, Uganda. A survey questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 120 respondents. Logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems. Focus group discussions were also conducted to triangulate the findings. Results showed that 51.7% of the respondents had adopted sorghum-legume rotations compared to only 8.3% who adopted sorghum-legume intercropping. Number of extension contacts had a positively significant (p<0.05) effect on adoption of sorghum-legume rotations whereas family size had a negatively significant (p<0.05) effect on adoption of sorghum-legume intercropping. From focus group discussions, market access to legume crops also emerged as a barrier to adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems. The study recommends strengthening legume value chains; improving extension service delivery and conducting a cost-benefit analysis of adopting legume-based multiple cropping systems. The implication to extension service delivery is that extension agents should focus their technology dissemination messages on technologies that are accepted and feasible in their farming communities.