The effect of ultra-high dilutions of thyroxine on the morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles

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Peer-Reviewed Research
  • SDG 3
  • Abstract:

    Abstract: The use of ultra-high dilutions and their effect has been the subject of much debate and controversy for the practice of homeopathy. The effect of these dilutions is considered to be due to non-molecular information transfer to the solvent during the process of succussion and dilution. High dilutions are not suitable to pharmacokinetic investigation due to their lack of detectable active ingredient and the lack of analytical methods with sufficient sensitivity; however, laboratory and clinical studies are providing experimental evidence contributing to the pharmacodynamics of high dilution remedies. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ultra-high dilutions of Thyroxine on the morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles using potencies of 6C, 30C and 200C, to determine if the effect is stimulatory or inhibitory to morphogenesis and whether the various potencies have similar or different effects on morphogenesis. The morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, is dependent entirely on the thyroid system and the production of thyroxine; they require the initiation and maintenance of high levels of circulating thyroid hormones to make the transition from tadpole to juvenile frog. Exposure of tadpoles to exogenous thyroid hormones can induce precocious morphogenesis, whilst withholding thyroid hormones by surgical ablation of the thyroid gland will prevent any further development until such time that the hormone is replaced. Homeopathy is based on the “Law of Similars” and the idea of “Like cures like”. This implies that a crude substance capable of producing particular symptoms in a healthy individual, in homeopathic dilution, is able to cure these same symptoms expressed as a disease. Using this model, the effect of homeopathically prepared ultra-high dilutions of Thyroxine on the morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles was determined. The high levels of naturally circulating thyroid hormones at particular stages...