Multiplicity in public policy implementation

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Peer-Reviewed Research


Failures in service delivery or policy outcomes are in some instances ascribed to single and linear causes. Similarly, the successes of policy outcomes are seemingly due to one success factor. This article attempts to indicate the multiple factors influencing implementation outcomes. The emphasis of multiplicity provides a clearer understanding of real policy implementation. Investigation into multiple policy actors and the relation with structures and outcomes provide a meaningful perspective on policy implementation.