Excessive mortalities were experienced in the bigger rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) at an efficiently managed trout farm. All tests for known toxins in the feed and water proved to be negative. A faecal Streptococcus which belongs to the Lancefield group D but which could not be identified as belonging to any of the recognized species within this group, was isolated from the spleens, livers and kidneys of affected fish. Pathogenicity studies with this organism proved it to be highly fatal to trout but not to Mozambique bream (Sarotherodon mossambicus), banded bream (Tilapia sparrmanii), carp (Cyprinus carpio) or largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The isolation and biochemical characteristics of the organism are described. The symptoms, gross- and histopathology of this disease are described and discussed. The disease resembles a haemorrhagic septicaemia and appears to be associated with intensification and conditions of stress.