The venous drainage of the cervical vertebrae of the ox (Bos taurus L.)

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Peer-Reviewed Research
  • SDG 3
  • Abstract:

    The venous drainage of the cervical vertebrae of the ox was studied in 16 animals (Friesland, Jersey and Guernsey cross-breeds), ranging from near full-term foetuses to adults. The extra- and intraosseous veins of the cervical vertebrae are described and illustrated. The nutrient vessels are derived from the vertebral, deep cervical, occipital and internal jugular veins. In addition to the dorsal and ventral external venous plexuses, a lateral external venous plexus is described. The intraosseous veins correspond in the main to the arteries. They are described and illustrated with reference to the available literature. In both young and adult animals anastomoses between epi- and metaphysial vessels are reported. The role of the internal ventral vertebral venous system as a collateral pathway is stressed and comments are made on its possible functional role.