Grossly, the skin of the dog is characterized by varying thicknesses, density of the hair coat and the implantation angle of the hairs. Multiple folds varying in shape are formed by the epidermis and the papillary layer of the corium. The epidermis consists of a stratum profundum with a continuous layer of basal cells, a stratum spinosum consisting of 3-6 cell layers, a stratum superficiale with single granulosa and "lucidum" cells and a well-developed stratum corneum. The corium shows a narrow stratum papillare corii containing delicate fibres and a broad stratum reticulare corii with mainly coarse fibre bundles. The subcutis is divided into adipose and fibrous layers. The broad adipose layer displays breed and individual differences which vary with the region of the body. The fibrous layer corresponds to the connective tissue layer, formerly described as fascia trunci superficialis. The morphological and functional unity of the corium and subcutis is discussed.