The occurrence of facial eczema in sheep in the Republic of South Africa is reported for the first time. The disease in this country is similar to that described in New Zealand and Australia. To date it has only been diagnosed in Merino sheep on artificial pastures in the Humansdorp area of the Cape Province. The fungus Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M. B. Ellis was isolated from grass litter in these pastures. One of these isolates was shown to produce sporidesmin and the typical clinical and histopathological signs of facial eczema were reproduced upon dosing this culture to a lamb.