To obtain information on the incidence and distribution of Actinobacillus seminis infection in the Republic of South Africa, a clinical and serological survey was carried out on 409 farms situated in 29 districts. All rams submitted for certification to the Regional Laboratory from 1/1/69 to 31/1/74 were included in a separate investigation. These particular rams represented different breeds and originated from farms in over 48 districts. Examinations were also carried out on all rams on 11 stud farms in the Middelburg and adjacent districts with a high incidence of epididymitis, despite regular immunization with Elberg Rev. 1 vaccine. These investigations confirmed that genital infection of rams still presents a major problem in the main sheep breeds and the main sheep farming areas of South Africa. A high incidence of infection with A. seminis, an organism which appears to be the most important one associated with genital infection in this country, was also established. Genital infection due to A. seminis is geographically also very widespread.