From the 1950s through the 1980s, both the government of
Sweden and various non-governmental agencies in that country
stood at the forefront of the international campaign against
apartheid. To a considerable extent, representatives of the
Church of Sweden Mission were involved in this struggle.
Among them was Gunnar Helander (1915-2006), a missionary
in Natal and on the Witwatersrand from 1938 until 1956. After
he returned permanently to Sweden, his role escalated and
became known internationally, especially due to his prominence
in the leadership of the International Defence and Aid Fund.
Between 1949 and 1986 Helander wrote seven novels set in
South Africa. In these works one can trace the unfolding of his
position on apartheid, which evolved from mild criticism of race
relations in South Africa to advocacy of international subversion
of the P.W. Botha regime