This article is concerned with the configuration of provincial and local government in South Africa and the possibility of future changes thereto. Firstly, an historical overview is provided analysing the evolution of South African sub-national government since 1910, with particular emphasis on the differences between the pre- and post-apartheid local and provincial government dispensations. Secondly, the ideological departure points of the African National Congress are explored, as the government of the day and the likely initiators of change to local and provincial government in South Africa. Thirdly, the current local and provincial government dispensation is analysed in terms of statutory characteristics, functionality, and political governance. Finally, perspectives from the 2010 ANC Summit on Provincial and Local Government are discussed, with the aim of evaluating various possibilities for change to the local and provincial spheres of government.