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  • SDG 1: No poverty

    1,086 articles available

    The goal has seven targets and 13 indicators to measure progress. The five “outcome targets” are: eradication of extreme poverty; reduction of all poverty by half; implementation of social protection systems; ensuring equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources; and the building of resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters. The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG 1 are mobilization of resources to end poverty; and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels. [Source.]

  • SDG 2: Zero hunger

    2,956 articles available

    SDG 2 has eight targets and 14 indicators to measure progress. The five “outcome targets” are: ending hunger and improving access to food; ending all forms of malnutrition; agricultural productivity; sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices; and genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals; investments, research and technology. The three “means of achieving” targets include: addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity markets and their derivatives. [Source.]

  • SDG 3: Good health and well-being

    13,726 articles available

    SDG 3 has 13 targets and 28 indicators to measure progress toward targets. The first nine targets are “outcome targets”. Those are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under five years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; reduce road injuries and deaths; grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education; achieve universal health coverage; and reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution. The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risks. [Source.]

  • SDG 4: Quality education

    2,773 articles available

    SDG 4 has ten targets which are measured by 11 indicators. The seven “outcome-oriented targets” are: free primary and secondary education; equal access to quality pre-primary education; affordable technical, vocational and higher education; increased number of people with relevant skills for financial success; elimination of all discrimination in education; universal literacy and numeracy; and education for sustainable development and global citizenship. The three “means of achieving targets” are: build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools; expand higher education scholarships for developing countries; and increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries. [Source.]

  • SDG 5: Gender equality

    1,236 articles available

    SDG 5 has nine targets and 14 indicators. Six of the targets are “outcome-oriented”: ending all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere; ending violence and exploitation of women and girls; eliminating harmful practices such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation; increasing value of unpaid care and promoting shared domestic responsibilities; ensuring full participation of women in leadership and decision-making; and ensuring access to universal reproductive rights and health. The three “means of achieving” targets are: fostering equal rights to economic resources, property ownership and financial services for women; promoting empowerment of women through technology; and adopting, strengthening policies and enforcing legislation for gender equality. [Source.]

  • SDG 6: Clean water and sanitation

    752 articles available

    The six “outcome-oriented targets” include: Safe and affordable drinking water; end open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene, improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse, increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies, implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems. The two “means of achieving” targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management. [Source.]

  • SDG 7: Affordable and clean energy

    3,425 articles available

    The goal has five targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards the targets is measured by six indicators. Three out of the five targets are “outcome targets”: Universal access to modern energy; increase global percentage of renewable energy; double the improvement in energy efficiency. The remaining two targets are “means of achieving targets”: to promote access to research, technology and investments in clean energy; and expand and upgrade energy services for developing countries. [Source.]

  • SDG 8: Decent work and economic growth

    5,764 articles available

    SDG 8 has twelve targets in total to be achieved by 2030. Some targets are for 2030; others are for 2020. The first ten are “outcome targets”. These are: sustainable economic growth; diversify, innovate and upgrade for economic productivity; promote policies to support job creation and growing enterprises; improve resource efficiency in consumption and production; full employment and decent work with equal pay; promote youth employment, education and training; end modern slavery, trafficking, and child labour; protect labour rights and promote safe working environments; promote beneficial and sustainable tourism; universal access to banking, insurance and financial services. In addition, there are also two targets for “means of achieving”, which are: Increase aid for trade support; develop a global youth employment strategy. [Source.]

  • SDG 9: Industry, infrastructure and innovation

    4,028 articles available

    SDG 9 has eight targets, and progress is measured by twelve indicators. The first five targets are “outcome targets”: Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures; promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization; increase access to financial services and markets; upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability; enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies. The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology. [Source.]

  • SDG 10: Reduced inequalities

    701 articles available

    The Goal has ten targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards targets will be measured by indicators. The first seven targets are “outcome targets”: Reduce income inequalities; promote universal social, economic and political inclusion; ensure equal opportunities and end discrimination; adopt fiscal and social policies that promotes equality; improved regulation of global financial markets and institutions; enhanced representation for developing countries in financial institutions; responsible and well-managed migration policies. The other three targets are “means of achievement” targets: Special and differential treatment for developing countries; encourage development assistance and investment in least developed countries; reduce transaction costs for migrant remittances. [Source.]

  • SDG 11: Sustainable cities and communities

    2,090 articles available

    SDG 11 has ten targets to be achieved, and this is being measured with 15 indicators. The seven “outcome targets” include: Safe and affordable housing, affordable and sustainable transport systems; inclusive and sustainable urbanization; protect the world's cultural and natural heritage; reduce the adverse effects of natural disasters; reduce the environmental impacts of cities; provide access to safe and inclusive green and public spaces. The three “means of achieving” targets include: Strong national and regional development planning; implement policies for inclusion, resource efficiency and disaster risk reduction; support least developed countries in sustainable and resilient building. [Source.]

  • SDG 12: Responsible consumption and production

    8,363 articles available

    Sustainable Development Goal 12 has 11 targets. The first 8 are “outcome targets”, which are: implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns; achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources; reducing by half the per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and the reduction of food losses along production and supply chains; achieving the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle; reducing waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse; encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices; promote public procurement practices that are sustainable; and ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development. The three “means of achievement” targets are: support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity; develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts; and remove market distortions, like fossil fuel subsidies, that encourage wasteful consumption. [Source.]

  • SDG 13: Climate action

    16,413 articles available

    There are 5 targets in total, all of which cover a wide range of issues surrounding climate action. The first three targets are “output targets”: Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related disasters; integrate climate change measures into policies and planning; build knowledge and capacity to meet climate change. The remaining two targets are “means of achieving” targets: To implement the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change; and to promote mechanisms to raise capacity for planning and management. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. [Source.]

  • SDG 14: Life below water

    1,141 articles available

    The first seven targets are “outcome targets”: Reduce marine pollution; protect and restore ecosystems; reduce ocean acidification; sustainable fishing; conserve coastal and marine areas; end subsidies contributing to overfishing; increase the economic benefits from sustainable use of marine resources. The last three targets are “means of achieving” targets: To increase scientific knowledge, research and technology for ocean health; support small scale fishers; implement and enforce international sea law. [Source.]

  • SDG 15: Life on land

    1,302 articles available

    The nine “outcome targets” include: Conserve and restore terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems; end deforestation and restore degraded forests; end desertification and restore degraded land; ensure conservation of mountain ecosystems, protect biodiversity and natural habitats; protect access to genetic resources and fair sharing of the benefits; eliminate poaching and trafficking of protected species; prevent invasive alien species on land and in water ecosystems; and integrate ecosystem and biodiversity in governmental planning. The three “means of achieving targets” include: Increase financial resources to conserve and sustainably use ecosystem and biodiversity; finance and incentivize sustainable forest management; combat global poaching and trafficking. [Source.]

  • SDG 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions

    3,796 articles available

    The goal has ten “outcome targets”: Reduce violence; protect children from abuse, exploitation, trafficking and violence; promote the rule of law and ensure equal access to justice; combat organized crime and illicit financial and arms flows, substantially reduce corruption and bribery; develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions; ensure responsive, inclusive and representative decision-making; strengthen the participation in global governance; provide universal legal identity; ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms. There are also two “means of achieving targets”: Strengthen national institutions to prevent violence and combat crime and terrorism; promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies. [Source.]

  • SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals

    7,416 articles available

    This goal has 19 outcome targets and 24 indicators. Increasing international cooperation is seen as vital to achieving each of the 16 previous goals. Goal 17 is included to assure that countries and organizations cooperate instead of compete. Developing multi-stakeholder partnerships to share knowledge, expertise, technology, and financial support is seen as critical to overall success of the SDGs. The goal encompasses improving north–south and South-South cooperation, and public-private partnerships which involve civil societies are specifically mentioned. [Source.]

Featured Research

A metadatabase that makes SDG-relevant research available to decision makers.


The South African SDG Hub aggregates the best and most relevant research on the SDGs from South African and selected non-South Africa universities. Our machine-learning-based classification tool classifies research in terms of one or more of the SDGs.