The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial08 February 2018
BACKGROUND: Previously published research that examined the effects of high egg consumption in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) produced conflicting results leading to recommendations to limit egg intake. However, people with T2D may benefit from egg consumption because eggs are a nutritious and convenient way of improving protein and micronutrient contents of the diet, which have importance for satiety and weight management. OBJECTIVE: In this randomized controlled study, we aimed to determine whether a high-egg diet (2 eggs/d for 6 d/wk) compared with a low-egg diet (<2 eggs/wk) affected circulating lipid profiles, in particular high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, in overweight or obese people with prediabetes or T2D. DESIGN: A total of 140 participants were randomly assigned to one of the 2 diets as part of a 3-mo weight maintenance study. Participants attended the clinic monthly and were instructed on the specific types of foods and quantities to be consumed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the change in HDL cholesterol from screening to 3 mo between groups; the mean difference (95% CI) between high- and low-egg groups was +0.02 mmol/L (-0.03, 0.08 mmol/L; P = 0.38). No between-group differences were shown for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or glycemic control. Both groups were matched for protein intake, but the high-egg group reported less hunger and greater satiety postbreakfast. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intakes significantly increased from baseline in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: High egg consumption did not have an adverse effect on the lipid profile of people with T2D in the context of increased MUFA and PUFA consumption. This study suggests that a high-egg diet can be included safely as part of the dietary management of T2D, and it may provide greater satiety. This trial was registered at the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/) as ACTRN12612001266853.