Maternal first trimester serum levels of free-beta human chorionic gonadotropin and male genital

28 July 2017

Are maternal first trimester levels of serum free-beta hCG associated with the development of hypospadias or undescended testis (UDT) in boys? Overall, first trimester maternal levels of serum free-beta hCG are not associated with hypospadias or UDT. However, elevated levels were found in severe phenotypes (proximal hypospadias and bilateral UDT) suggesting an altered pathway of hormonal release in early pregnancy.