Towards resolving the presynaptic NMDA receptor debate.24 Jan 2018
In the classical view, postsynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) trigger Hebbian plasticity via Ca2+ influx. However, unconventional presynaptic NMDARs (preNMDARs) which regulate both long-term and short-term plasticity at several synapse types have also been found. A lack of sufficiently specific experimental manipulations and a poor understanding of how preNMDARs signal have contributed to long-standing controversy surrounding these receptors. Although several prior studies linked preNMDARs to neocortical timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD), a recent study argues that the NMDARs are actually postsynaptic and signal metabotropically, that is, without Ca2+. Other recent work indicates that, whereas ionotropic preNMDARs signaling controls evoked release, spontaneous release is regulated by metabotropic NMDAR signaling. We argue that elucidating unconventional NMDAR signaling modes-both presynaptically and metabotropically-is key to resolving the preNMDAR debate.