Signed-For Delivery in the Mitochondrial Matrix: Confirming Uptake into Mitochondria

08 Jun 2018

Mitochondria are best known for their ability to provide energy in the form of an elevated ATP/ADP ratio to the cell via oxidative phosphorylation and, impairment of mitochondrial ATP production can lead to a variety of diseases. For many of these disorders, caused by mutations in the mtDNA, classical gene therapy is not possible due to the to difficulty of importing nucleic acids into the mitochondrial matrix where the aberrant genes are transcribed. Technical progress in this field has been severely hampered by our ability to correctly determine whether uptake into the mitochondrial matrix of nucleic acids and related oligomers has occurred. In this paper we describe the methods that have been used to determine translocation of macromolecules into mitochondria in the past, as well as discussing some recent developments in the field.