Sensitivity of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juvenile hatch, motility and viability to pure cucurbitacins and cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides

31 Aug 2020

Previous claims suggested that pure active ingredients from botanicals were less effective in pest management than their fermented crude-extracts. The objective of this study was to compare the toxicity of pure (98%) cucurbitacin A and B on nematode bioactivities with those of their fermented crude-extracts, the Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides, respectively. Purified active ingredients were each diluted to 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 μg ml‒1 and their fermented crude-extracts to 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4.0%, 4.5% and 5.0% phytonematicide. The exposure time for second-stage juveniles (J2) hatch, motility and viability of the J2 to each concentration was 24, 48 and 72 h. The overall sensitivities (Σk) of J2 hatch to Nemarioc-AL, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL and cucurbitacin B were 1, 30, 5 and 2 units, respectively, for motility 7, 12, 2 and 12 units, respectively, and for viability 2, 4, 1 and 4 units, respectively. Generally, nematodes displayed high sensitivities to cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides than to their respective purified active ingredients (cucurbitacins). In conclusion, the cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides were more effective in nematode suppression than their purified active ingredients.