Red palm oil reverses lead-induced lipid dysfunction and biochemical alterations in the plasma of Wistar rats

28 May 2019

Purpose: Altered lipid metabolism has being suggested as one of the important mechanisms of Pb-induced toxicity. This study investigates a possible protective effect of red palm oil (RPO) on Pb-induced lipid dysfunction and biochemical alterations in the plasma of Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-five animals (n = 5/group) were randomly divided into five treatment groups, i.e. control group (physiological saline), Pb group (75 mg Pb/kg body weight), RPO group (2 mL RPO per rat), RPO + Pb group (2 mL RPO followed 1 h later by 75 mg Pb/kg body weight) and Pb + RPO group (75 mg Pb/kg body weight for 12 weeks, followed by 2 mL RPO per rat for four weeks) with all administrations done by oral gavage three times per week. Lipid profiles as well as liver and kidney function markers were measured in the plasma of all groups of rats. Results of the study: A significant (p < 0.05) increase in plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol, and a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in HDL-cholesterol was observed in Pb exposed rats compared with control. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were all significantly (p < 0.05) elevated. Administration of RPO either pre- or post-Pb exposure significantly (p < 0.05) lower elevated plasma lipids while the biochemical alterations as indicated by elevated aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea induced by Pb were all lowered. This study showed that RPO administration either before or after lead exposure reverses Pb-induced lipid dysfunction and biochemical alterations in the plasma of Wistar rats.