Progression and treatment rates using an active surveillance protocol incorporating image-guided baseline biopsies and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging monitoring for men with favourable-risk prostate cancer.

26 Apr 2018

OBJECTIVE: To assess early outcomes since the introduction of an active surveillance (AS) protocol incorporating multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-guided baseline biopsies and image-based surveillance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A new AS protocol mandating image-guided baseline biopsies, annual mpMRI and 3-monthly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, but which retained protocol re-biopsies, was tested. Pathological progression, treatment conversion and triggers for non-protocol biopsy were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: Data from 157 men enrolled in the AS protocol (median age 64 years, PSA 6.8 ng/mL, follow-up 39 months) were interrogated. A total of 12 men (7.6%) left the AS programme by choice. Of the 145 men who remained, 104 had re-biopsies either triggered by a rise in PSA level, change in mpMRI findings or by protocol. Overall, 23 men (15.9%) experienced disease progression; pathological changes were observed in 20 men and changes in imaging results were observed in three men. Of these 23 men, 17 switched to treatment, giving a conversion rate of 11.7% (<4% per year). Of the 20 men with pathological progression, this was detected in four of them after a PSA increase triggered a re-biopsy, while in 10 men progression was detected after an mpMRI change. Progression was detected in six men, however, solely after a protocol re-biopsy without prior PSA or mpMRI changes. Using PSA and mpMRI changes alone to detect progression was found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 70.0% and 81.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our AS protocol, with thorough baseline assessment and imaging-based surveillance, showed low rates of progression and treatment conversion. Changes in mpMRI findings were the principle trigger for detecting progression by imaging alone or pathologically; however, per protocol re-biopsy still detected a significant number of pathological progressions without mpMRI or PSA changes.