Normoglycaemic, normolipidaemic and antioxidant Effects of ethanolic extract of Acacia ataxacantha root in streptozotocin - induced Diabetic Rats

23 May 2019

The antidiabetic, normolipidaemic, antioxidant and safety evaluations of ethanolic extract of Acacia ataxacantha roots (EEAAR) were investigated in streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats, to verify its use in traditional African medicine and as alternative to synthetic normoglycaemic agents in diabetic treatments. Thirty albino rats (Rattus novergicus) were randomized into six groups - control, diabetic control, EEAAR-treated at 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weights (b.wts.) and metformin groups, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoid, saponins, tannins and terpenoid. Blood glucose was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) especially after 7 days of oral administration of EEAAR at 125 mg/kg b.wt with values (110.01 ? 9.64 mg/dl) similar to that of the control (106.33 ? 4.13 mg/dl). There was an increase (p < 0.05) in the ALT and AST activities of the liver and serum of rats in all the groups except in those that received 125 mg/kg b.wt. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride were decreased (p < 0.05) upon administration of the extract and metformin. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in malondialdehyde concentration of rats administered with 125 mg/kg b.wt. of extract and metformin. Superoxide dismutase activity was elevated (p < 0.05) in all groups and compared favourably with the control in each of the tissues. This study revealed the antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of EEAAR, which may be due to the antioxidant properties of some of the phytochemical constituents. However, the extract may not be safe at large and repeated doses.