Multimodality neuromonitoring in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury

11 Jan 2018

Each year, the annual hospitalization rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children in the United States are 57.7 per 100K in the <5 years of age and 23.1 per 100K in the 5–14 years age group. Despite this, little is known about the pathophysiology of TBI in children and how to manage it most effectively. Historically, TBI management has been guided by clinical examination. This has been assisted progressively by clinical imaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and finally a software that can calculate optimal brain physiology. Multimodality monitoring affords clinicians an early indication of secondary insults to the recovering brain including raised ICP and decreased cerebral perfusion pressure. From variables such as ICP and arterial blood pressure, correlations can be drawn to determine parameters of cerebral autoregulation (pressure reactivity index) and “optimal cerebral perfusion pressure” at which the vasculature is most reactive. More recently, significant advances using both direct and near-infrared spectroscopy–derived brain oxygenation plus cerebral microdialysis to drive management have been described. Here in, we provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art techniques recently implemented in clinical practice for pediatric TBI.