Metal Halide Perovskite Polycrystalline Films Exhibiting Properties of Single Crystals10 Aug 2017
Metal halide perovskites are generating enormous excitement for use in solar cells and light-emission applications, but devices still show substantial non-radiative losses. Here, we show that by combining light and atmospheric treatments, we can increase the internal luminescence quantum efficiencies of polycrystalline perovskite films from 1% to 89%, with carrier lifetimes of 32 μs and diffusion lengths of 77 μm, comparable with perovskite single crystals. Remarkably, the surface recombination velocity of holes in the treated films is 0.4 cm/s, approaching the values for fully passivated crystalline silicon, which has the lowest values for any semiconductor to date. The enhancements translate to solar cell power-conversion efficiencies of 19.2%, with a near-instant rise to stabilized power output, consistent with suppression of ion migration. We propose a mechanism in which light creates superoxide species from oxygen that remove shallow surface states. The work reveals an industrially scalable post-treatment capable of producing state-of-the-art semiconducting films.