Longitudinal genomic surveillance of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli carriage in a long-term care facility in the United Kingdom.25 Jul 2017
BACKGROUND: Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) may have high carriage rates of multidrug-resistant pathogens, but are not currently included in surveillance programmes for antimicrobial resistance or healthcare-associated infections. Here, we describe the value derived from a longitudinal epidemiological and genomic surveillance study of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in a LTCF in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Forty-five of 90 (50%) residents were recruited and followed for six months in 2014. Participants were screened weekly for carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli. Participants positive for ESBL E. coli were also screened for ESBL-negative E. coli. Phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli was determined using the Vitek2 instrument and isolates were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq2000 instrument. Information was collected on episodes of clinical infection and antibiotic consumption. RESULTS: Seventeen of 45 participants (38%) carried ESBL E. coli. Twenty-three of the 45 participants (51%) had 63 documented episodes of clinical infection treated with antibiotics. Treatment with antibiotics was associated with higher risk of carrying ESBL E. coli. ESBL E. coli was mainly sequence type (ST)131 (16/17, 94%). Non-ESBL E. coli from these 17 cases was more genetically diverse, but ST131 was found in eight (47%) cases. Whole-genome analysis of 297 ST131 E. coli from the 17 cases demonstrated highly related strains from six participants, indicating acquisition from a common source or person-to-person transmission. Five participants carried highly related strains of both ESBL-positive and ESBL-negative ST131. Genome-based comparison of ST131 isolates from the LTCF study participants with ST131 associated with bloodstream infection at a nearby acute hospital and in hospitals across England revealed sharing of highly related lineages between the LTCF and a local hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the power of genomic surveillance to detect multidrug-resistant pathogens and confirm their connectivity within a healthcare network.