Global geopotential models from satellite laser ranging data with geophysical applications : a review

02 Apr 2012

The launch of artificial satellites (as early as in 1957), specifically the launch of the first laser tracked satellite, Beacon-B, in 1964, has provided data sets which have allowed researchers to probe the long to medium components of the gravitational field of the Earth. In particular, observational data recorded at satellite laser ranging tracking stations have since been used to develop models that quantify the global long-wavelength and medium-wavelength gravity field of the Earth. Currently, literature reviewing gravity field models with geophysical applications is scarce and not up to date. The most recent review paper was published more than a decade ago. In the interim, there has been an unprecedented increase in gravity field modelling, which can be attributed to the deployment of new and dedicated satellite missions. As a result, a number of existing geopotential models have been improved and new models have been developed. Each of these models differs in accuracy and spatial-temporal scale. This review extends the earlier review of gravity field models, by incorporating up-to-date research efforts in geopotential modelling with geophysical applications in oceanography, hydrology, geodesy and solid Earth science.