Femoral neck fractures as a complication of hip arthroscopy: a systematic review.

23 Feb 2018

The purpose of this study was to identify the causes and risk factors for hip fractures, a rare but devastating complication, following hip arthroscopy. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed were searched and screened in duplicate for relevant clinical and basic sciences studies and pertinent data was abstracted and analysed in Microsoft Excel. Nineteen studies (12 clinical studies and seven biomechanical studies) with a total of 31 392 patients experiencing 43 hip fractures (0.1% of patients) met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Femoral osteochondroplasty was performed in 100% of patients who sustained a hip fracture. Six of the 12 (50%) studies identified early weight bearing (prior to 6 weeks post-operatively) as the cause for the hip fracture. Other causes of this complication included over resection during femoral osteochondroplasty, minor trauma and intensive exercise. The results suggest that early weight bearing is the largest modifiable risk factor for hip fracture after femoral osteochondroplasty. For this reason, an extended period of non-weight bearing or restricted weight bearing should be considered in select patients. Studies report a correlation between risk for post-operative hip fracture and increased age. Increased resection during osteochondroplasty has been correlated with increased risk of fracture in various basic science studies. Resection depth has significantly higher impact on risk of fracture than resection length or width. The reported amounts of resection that depth that can be performed before there is a significantly increased risk of fracture of the femoral neck varies from 10 to 30%.