Factors Associated With Depression in Patients With Tinnitus and Hyperacusis.19 Nov 2018
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with depression for patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis. METHOD: Data were gathered from the records of 620 consecutive patients who sought help concerning their tinnitus or hyperacusis from an audiology clinic in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: One third of the patients had borderline abnormal or abnormal scores on the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Linear regression models showed that HADS-D scores were related to scores for tinnitus handicap, tinnitus loudness, and uncomfortable loudness levels. Mediation analyses showed that (a) the influence of tinnitus handicap scores on HADS-D scores was mainly mediated via the effects of insomnia, hyperacusis, and anxiety; (b) the influence of tinnitus loudness scores on HADS-D scores was fully mediated via the effects of tinnitus handicap, insomnia, hyperacusis handicap, and anxiety; (c) and the small influence of uncomfortable loudness levels on HADS-D scores was fully mediated by hyperacusis handicap and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Those involved in the management of patients with tinnitus and/or hyperacusis should use a wide range of instruments to assess the full impact of tinnitus on a patient's life and should be prepared to refer a patient for treatment for depression, especially when the patient has anxiety, hyperacusis, and/or insomnia.