Cross sectional evaluation of the gut-microbiome metabolome axis in an Italian cohort of IBD patients.

15 Jun 2018

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract of uncertain origin, which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The composition of gut microbiota may change in IBD affected individuals, but whether dysbiosis is the cause or the consequence of inflammatory processes in the intestinal tissue is still unclear. Here, the composition of the microbiota and the metabolites in stool of 183 subjects (82 UC, 50 CD, and 51 healthy controls) were determined. The metabolites content and the microbiological profiles were significantly different between IBD and healthy subjects. In the IBD group, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Fusobacteria were significantly increased, whereas Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria were decreased. At genus level Escherichia, Faecalibacterium, Streptococcus, Sutterella and Veillonella were increased, whereas Bacteroides, Flavobacterium, and Oscillospira decreased. Various metabolites including biogenic amines, amino acids, lipids, were significantly increased in IBD, while others, such as two B group vitamins, were decreased in IBD compared to healthy subjects. This study underlines the potential role of an inter-omics approach in understanding the metabolic pathways involved in IBD. The combined evaluation of metabolites and fecal microbiome can be useful to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients with IBD.