Cellular mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in health and disease. 2. Protein misfolding and ER stress.

18 May 2018

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major site of protein synthesis, most strikingly in the specialized secretory cells of metazoans, which can produce their own weight in proteins daily. Cells possess a diverse machinery to ensure correct folding, assembly, and secretion of proteins from the ER. When this machinery is overwhelmed, the cell is said to experience ER stress, a result of the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the organelle. Here we discuss the causes of ER stress and the mechanisms by which cells elicit a response, with an emphasis on recent discoveries.