Biological sand filter system treating winery effluent for effective reduction in organic load and pH neutralisation

27 Aug 2018

Wineries generate 0.2?14 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced, which is often used for irrigation or discharged into aquatic systems. To mitigate adverse environmental impacts, there is a need for low cost wastewater treatment options. The novel biological sand filtration system described in this pilot study is a sustainable off-grid modular system which can be easily retrofitted to current infrastructure. The system was operated with average hydraulic and organic loading rates of 150 Lm?3 and 152 gCOD.m?3 of, respectively. Over 762 days of operation, average removal efficiencies of 79% and 77% in terms of chemical oxygen demand and total phenolic concentrations were achieved. In addition, an average 1.8-fold increase in the calcium concentration was achieved, with a concomitant reduction in the sodium adsorption ratio and similar indices. This pilot study also confirmed in a ?real world? setting the results of laboratory-based studies where biological sand filters neutralised acidic synthetic winery wastewater and reduced the organic load.