An overview of the potential use of ethno-medicinal plants targeting the Renin–Angiotensin system in the treatment of hypertension

21 May 2021

The development of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disorders present a major public health challenge in both developed countries and countries with emerging economies. Hypertension and associated complications including stroke and myocardial infarction have reached pandemic levels. Current management strategies of hypertension predominantly include the utilization of pharmaceutical drugs which are often associated with undesirable side e ects. Moreover, the drugs are often too expensive for populations from resource-limited Southern African rural, and some urban, communities. As a result, most patients rely on ethno-medicinal plants for the treatment of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The e ectiveness of these plants in managing several cardiovascular diseases has been attributed to the presence of bioactive phytochemical constituents. In this review, the treatment options that target the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the management of hypertension were summarized, with special emphasis on ethno-medicinal plants and their influence on the ACE1 RAS pathway. The dearth of knowledge regarding the e ect of ethno-medicinal plants on the ACE2 pathway was also highlighted.