Adiaspiromycosis in a wild European rabbit, and a review of the literature.

20 Mar 2018

Adiaspiromycosis is a mycotic infection caused by thermally dimorphic fungi classified as Emmonsia parva and E. crescens (formerly Chrysosporium spp.) until recently, when new classifications were proposed. We document the pathologic findings in a severe case of adiaspiromycosis, with lymph node involvement, in a wild European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus). The rabbit exhibited granulomatous pneumonia with tracheobronchial lymph node enlargement. Histopathologically, the lung was expanded by myriad, densely cellular, heterophilic and granulomatous foci, surrounding bi- to trilaminar adiaspores. Adiaspore density was considered to be similar in all lung lobes. In the left caudal lung lobe, 80 adiaspores were counted in a 50-mm2 area using digital image analysis. The mean and median adiaspore diameters were 240 ± 52 μm and 255 μm, respectively. Tracheobronchial lymph nodes exhibited moderate numbers of similar adiaspores. PCR amplification of DNA extracted from microdissected adiaspores failed to identify Emmonsia spp.-specific DNA. These data suggest that adiaspiromycosis may result in severe granulomatous pneumonia in wild European rabbits. Although confirmation of the etiologic agent by PCR using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue is not always successful, digital image analysis can be used to aid accurate assessment of adiaspore density and morphology.